Thursday, May 21, 2020

African Americans During The Civil War - 1423 Words

African Americans were a very important addition to the American Civil War such as fighting and spying for both the north and the south sides. The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States between the North and South states. The war was from 1861-1865 and was because the South wanted to establish itself as a separate nation. The northern states were called the Union and the southern states were called the Confederate. Between the north and south states were the Border States, which did not belong to either of the sides. The Border States included Maryland, Delaware, West Virginia, Kentucky and Missouri. In the north, slavery did not exist but the south was the opposite. In the war, the north and south states fought against each other while the Border States were neutral. Before the war and during the war, African Americans were treated very unfairly compared to white people. This essay will examine how African Americans were treated before, during and after the Civil W ar. Before the Civil War, African Americans were not treated fairly, but what exactly was their role? In the North and South, African Americans had different roles. In the North, slavery was illegal but African Americans still did not have the same rights as white people. African Americans (if they were free) could get jobs and have their own life but they got many disadvantages. Some of these were not getting as much money as white people in jobs, being prohibited to learn how to read or write,Show MoreRelatedAfrican Americans During The Civil War1211 Words   |  5 PagesAfter the Civil War, the United States underwent a period of reconstruction. From the time of 1877 to 1890, the US economy grew exponentially, wealthy business owners like Rockefeller and Vanderbilt built American cities and railroads, and immigrants from all over the world flooded into the country. However, during this period America also faced great amount of poverty, terrible working conditions, mass political corr uptions, and a destruction of civil rights for African Americans, women, and immigrantsRead MoreAfrican Americans During The Civil War844 Words   |  4 PagesOver the years, the African American race has greatly evolved from having a lack of individual freedom to having their own sense of individuality. There have been many different events in America that has played some part in the evolution of the black race. After the Civil War, most of the races in America were seen to have separate freedom, but as the years progress African Americans were one of the many to stand up and obtain their individuality. In the process of obtaining individual freedomRead MoreAfrican Americans During The Civil War1434 Words   |  6 PagesMany African-Americans faced huge struggles years after the civil war. Their journey for racial equality began during the Reconstruction Era. The Civil War gave slaves freedom, a new set of huge challenges were put into play in the South. Under President Andrew Johnson, there were many new southern state legislatures that passed â€Å"black codes† to control most of the labor and behavior of the former slaves. Outrage in the North over these restrictive codes destroyed support for presidential reconstructionRead MoreAfrican American During The Civil War1235 Words   |  5 Pages African Americans Suffered During the Civil War Allison Wessels English 11- Period 5 Mrs. Blomme March 11, 2016 African American Suffered During the Civil War Outline: Thesis Statement: African American soldiers fighting in the Civil War. Introduction Introduce main points State thesis statement History of slavery Life of an African American slave Treatment Living conditions Work responsibilities African American soldiers Treatment of African American soldiers vs.Read MoreAfrican Americans During The Civil War1170 Words   |  5 PagesIn 1865, when the civil war ended in America and slavery was abolished, the African American population in the South faced many challenges related to their new found freedom. Following the post-Civil War Reconstruction period, white supremacy resurfaced in the South (AE Television, 2015). Beginning in the early 1900s through 1970 there was a mass exodus of African American s from the South to the North in America. Although some African American s were known to have moved from the South as earlyRead MoreAfrican Americans During The Civil War995 Words   |  4 Pagesbefore the Civil War, so it was a constant battle between African Americans and Whites. Antebellum time period focus on the differences between people in the south and the north. People who wanted slavery to continue, because it was profitable and people who wanted it to end. More simply, whites in the sou th did not want slavery to end, because it was a business that allowed them to make money off of other people s labor. While people in the north were more open to allow African Americans have moreRead MoreAfrican Americans During The Civil War Essay1319 Words   |  6 Pagesamong young African American men with little schooling. Radical changes in crime control and sentencing polices led to an unprecedented buildup of the United States prison population over the last thirty years. African Americans comprise a disproportionate percentage of the individuals imprisoned in State correctional institutions across the United States. . There are 5 main reasons as to why African Americans repeatedly go to prison. These reasons are racial discrimination, the war on drugs, trafficRead MoreAfrican Americans During The Civil War2079 Words   |  9 PagesAfrican Americans in the Civil War Everyday, people wake up and take it for granted. Just the simple and small things in life, people don’t seem to really appreciate. They tend to be ungrateful for the things that have been basically given to them. Many people of today do not realize the severity of how hard it was to get to this point in history. African Americans have had to face very strenuous times in order to make this world a better place. African Americans faced difficult times during theRead MoreAfrican Americans During The Civil War Essay2121 Words   |  9 Pagesthe Civil War, dividing the North and the South over the issues of slavery. In the end of the Civil War, many individuals with every sense of positive intentions gave opportunities and support to freed slaves developing into beneficial members for the nation. The United States came together as a nation to solve the issues of slavery, freedom, and the reorganization problems particular to African Americans. It is seen throughout our history a ll efforts to solve these issues but sadly African AmericansRead MoreAfrican American Soldiers During The Civil War902 Words   |  4 PagesMcCurry English 10 10 April 2015 African American Soldiers African-Americans served in the Civil War on both the Union and Confederate sides. In the Union Army, over 179,000 African American men served in over 160 units. More served with both the Union and Confederate units. This includes both northern free African Americans and runaway slaves from the South who enlisted to fight. By 1865, the South allowed slaves to enlist, but very few actually did. During the Civil War, blacks were treated like trash

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Monotheistic Relationship Between Creator And Creation

The relationship between the creator and creation differs in books with monotheistic and polytheistic traditions. Although these relationships between the creations and their god(s) have proven some similarities. The relationships the creation has with their creator have been seen to have guidance to a task. In the monotheistic relationship between â€Å"god† and creation have lessons of man and their journeys of hardships with the help of gods guidance. The polytheistic traditions have been proven as well that the gods have had helped them through their hardships by being guided and being favored by them. These relationships have represented how much contact the gods or god have with the creation; man. The representation of relationships in†¦show more content†¦Although the god Shamash, protector of Gilgamesh, begs to the other gods to spare Enkidu. The other gods have the majority of the â€Å"vote† and disregards Shamash and proceed to have Enkidu penalized to death. Enkidu death make Gilgamesh realized that death is what is going to happen to him as well; he is not invincible and will eventually die. Then Gilgamesh is in search of immortality. Gilgamesh then seeks out for Utnapishtim, the only person who is immortal. Gilgamesh then goes on various tasks throughout seven days, and he fails. Even with another opportunity for immortality Gilgamesh doesn’t triumphant and succeed immortality. He forever lost his opportunity to be immortal because he didn’t complete the challenge and a serpent ate his immortality fruit. Gilgamesh does not realize that Enlil, father of the gods, had already determined his destiny. It is clear that the gods in the Odyssey a nd Gilgamesh have destinies set for the main character and no matter what. The gods do anything in their power to take action for them to fulfill their destiny. The representation of monotheistic relationship between creation and the creator is they see that god is perfect in every way and that’s what they strive be like. Although man does have flaws and that we are â€Å"human† and we make mistakes. The communication between god and man is that it is not direct like the polytheistic traditions. The communications withShow MoreRelatedThe Circle Of Love By Timothy Keller1542 Words   |  7 PagesCircle of Trust. As its foundation, there is a close relationship and each person trust the next person. The Circle of Trust only works if each person in it does their part to maintain a trusting relationship. In the Triune God we see a similar concept; we see the Circle of Love. Like the Circle of Trust, The Circle of Love is all about relationship. God models the perfect relationship within Himself and puts it on display for all of creation to see. When you look at the world and how everythingRead MoreWorldview/Religion Analysis of Islam Essay1238 Words   |  5 PagesArabic term Islam literally means â€Å"surrender† or â€Å"submission†. The followers of Islam, known as Muslims (from the active participle of Islam), accept or surrender to the will of Allah, the Arabic word for god. Allah is viewed as a unique god who is creator and restorer of the world. The will of God, to which man is to submit, is made known through the Quran (the Koran), which was revealed to his messenger Muhammad. Muhammad, it is claimed was the last of the great prophets which included Adam, NoahRead MoreCommon Threads Throughout Judaism, Christianity, and Islam1233 Words   |  5 PagesThe monotheistic religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam have over many thousands of years established many traditions and beliefs. Many of these are from their respective book of scripture such as the Bible, Torah, or Qu’ran. Others are from the interpretation of the religions over the many years from their leaders an d the generational stories that have been passed down. Many of these can be seen as quite similar between the religions, but others can be considered unique to each one ofRead MoreThe Between God And The People Of Israel1661 Words   |  7 PagesThe covenant is one of the most significant elements of Judaism for contemporary Jewish adherents, as it expresses the ongoing reciprocal relationship between God and the people of Israel. The covenant governs and regulates all aspects of Jewish life, and is recorded as a series of arguments between God and Jewish adherents. Promised the land of Canna, blamelessness and many descendants if he lived in the presence of God, Abraham, the ‘father of the Jewish people’ and first patriarch to enter a covenantRead MoreThe Three Major Religions Essay1429 Words   |  6 PagesAugust 28, 2010 Strayer University The major religions in the world are Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are monotheistic religions, namely they believe that there is only one God. All three religions believe that this God is the origin and source of all that exists. God cares about the entire creation and desires the well-being of all. God is just and has provided basic rules for our guidance so that we may be good and righteous, according to GodsRead MoreWorld Religions : The Nature Divine And The Existence Of Evil2756 Words   |  12 Pagesfocus on seven different religions in this paper and how they each express the nature of the divine and how each religion views and deals with the existence of evil. Nature of the divine refers to God or Gods and their presence. Some religions are monotheistic, believing in one God, some are polytheistic, believing in more than one God, and some have no deity or worship at all. These belief systems affect how each religion expresses the nature of the divine and deals with the existence of evil. The existenceRead MoreThe Dilemma Of The Euthyphro Dilemma1739 Words   |  7 Pagesmorally virtuous and antecedent to good. In this essay, I will first examine the dilemma and argue that it is ultimately weak; that the two options presented are not exhaustive like the dilemma assumes. Thus, Theists do not have to make a decision between these choices. This leads to the discussion of other possible models which Theists could consider, concentrating on the one endorsed by Thomas Aquinas, namely that the belief that goodness is determined by God’s command, yet the nature of God is essentiallyRead MoreChristianity and Hinduism950 Words   |  4 Pages Christianity is one of the most influential religions known to man. Starting in c. 4 BCE a structure was about to be formed with the birth of Jesus, which led to the creation of the Christianity after Jesus was crucified and resurrected. The religion is monotheistic meaning it follows one god, referred to as â€Å"God†. The structure of Christianity has three major branches which are the Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, and Protestants, each branch containing a number of subcategories. ChristiansRead MoreThe Bible, The Passage Of Genesis943 Words   |  4 PagesThrough critical analysis and appropriate deliberation, the distinctive purpose of man, or ‘adam’, – a purpose that is set above all other God-created entities mentioned in the passage – undergirds the unique relationship humankind is thought to possess with its divine creator and fellow creations. With Genesis 1:26-31 under careful reflection, all details mentioned within the selected passage of the Hebrew Bible come together to support a meaningful interpretation of God’s unique designs for the humanRead MoreHesiod s Version Of The Prometheus And Pandora1896 Words   |  8 Pagesat explaining the origin of evil because its monotheistic structure makes the logic behind the evils far more clear and straightforward than Hesiod’s logic. The act of disobedience by Eve seems fully her own fault while God (Yahweh) is faultless. However, Genesis is too simple because the story of Prometheus/Pandora is far more complex. The Hesiod story of Prometheus/Pandora is more compelling than Genesis because the conflict allowed disputes between the gods in its polytheistic worldview rather

Surf Lifesaving Memorial Free Essays

P1 †¢ Surf Life Saving Memorial Task To develop a memorial for the men and women contributing to the surf lifesaving association and culture Analysis of the siteBasic inspirations 1: Rolling swell 2: SLS primary colours3: â€Å"all seeing mentality† 1: Rolling swell 2: SLS primary colours3: â€Å"all seeing mentality† The proposed site is located at main beach and runs parallel to the Southport surf lifesaving club. Site dimensions equate to approximately 30 meters squared (5m by 6m). There are two walking paths positioned parallel to the northern and western borders. We will write a custom essay sample on Surf Lifesaving Memorial or any similar topic only for you Order Now There is also a fence on the eastern border and a large pandanus tree just south of the site. The proposed site is located at main beach and runs parallel to the Southport surf lifesaving club. Site dimensions equate to approximately 30 meters squared (5m by 6m). There are two walking paths positioned parallel to the northern and western borders. There is also a fence on the eastern border and a large pandanus tree just south of the site. Design statement My design revolves around an â€Å"all seeing† mentality that is often associated with the SLS culture. Surf lifesavers protect people from the oceans unpredictable qualities and create a sense of security for beach goers. Watchful eyes ensure that nobody enjoying the wonders of a beach has to deal with dangerous or life threatening situations. As I progressed through my design I intended to keep this in mind at all times. The whole structure, excluding the metal support poles, will be constructed out of thick coloured sheets of soda lime glass. This particular type of glass was chosen due to the malleable and durable qualities that it offers. The centre piece will be a hollow and transparent piece of ocean blue glass. The top surface will be glass blown in accordance to the disks at either end of the design and will resemble the motion of rolling swells. All four glass disks will be identical in form but vary between yellow and red in colouration. The colouring of this design was chosen to commemorate surf lifesavers in a literal sense. Red and yellow to match the organizations primary colours and blue like the ocean. However, the symbolic meaning behind this design is far more potent and should evoke a strong feeling of security in those who view and consider the actual meaning of my memorial. The disk at the back will be used to look through and the three disks at the front will create a panoramic outlook onto Southports beachfront. This will metaphorically let people see â€Å"through a surf lifesavers eyes† and should remind observers that they are safe at the hands of lifesavers. Keeping an eye on the beach is a fundamental aspect of SLS and my design symbolically mirrors this important temperament. Plasticine models Figure 1. 1 Figure 1. 2 Figure 1. 3 Figure 1. 4 Design process The plasticene models shown on the previous page are an ordered process of my design. Figure 1. 1 was my initial concept and as you can see it incorperated the idea of an â€Å"all seeing metality† (two cylindrical shapes stemming off of an all seeing eye. ) This concept was discarded due to apprehensions regarding the eye. Although the eye and two viewing cylinders do commemorate surf lifesavers, I came to the conclusion that the design did not symbolically embody surf lifesavers. In Figure 1. 2 I was leaning more towards the idea of the ocean as well as an â€Å"all seeing mentality†. The wave was again a representation of SLS that is too literal. Figure 1. 3 was where my final design started to come together, the concept of an enclosed glass structure started to take form and the intention behind this design was ultimately to give people a view through â€Å"a surf life savers eyes†. By the time I had made my fourth and final model (Figure 1. 4) It can be seen that the shape and form were very similar to my final concept sketches and computer generated proposals. Technical drawings with dimenentions Figure 2. 1 Figure 2. 1 Figure 2. 1 Figure 3. 2 Figure 3. 2 Figure 3. 1 Figure 3. 1 In figure 2. 1 there is a picture of a human placed next to the front and side projections. This gives us an idea of scale in regards to design size. The proposal is 2000 mm In height and 5000mm in length. From the human scale we can see that the viewing disk at the back of the design will be at eye level for most average heighted people. This is a key design feature considering the whole purpose of the proposal is to let people view the beach through the glass design. Figure 3. 2 is a rendered image taken from the back end of my design, it’s an interesting image in the sense that it actually gives us an idea of what it would look like to look through my proposal, the only difference being that one would see Southports beachfront as a background rather than an autodesk inventor background. Figure 3. 2 is a rendered image taken from the back end of my design, it’s an interesting image in the sense that it actually gives us an idea of what it would look like to look through my proposal, the only difference being that one would see Southports beachfront as a background rather than an autodesk inventor background. Figure 3. 1 is a rendered image of the front end of my design in a perspective view. Figure 3. 1 is a rendered image of the front end of my design in a perspective view. Figure 3. Figur Development sketches (journal work) Additional rendered images How to cite Surf Lifesaving Memorial, Papers Surf Lifesaving Memorial Free Essays P1 †¢ Surf Life Saving Memorial Task To develop a memorial for the men and women contributing to the surf lifesaving association and culture Analysis of the siteBasic inspirations 1: Rolling swell 2: SLS primary colours3: â€Å"all seeing mentality† 1: Rolling swell 2: SLS primary colours3: â€Å"all seeing mentality† The proposed site is located at main beach and runs parallel to the Southport surf lifesaving club. Site dimensions equate to approximately 30 meters squared (5m by 6m). There are two walking paths positioned parallel to the northern and western borders. We will write a custom essay sample on Surf Lifesaving Memorial or any similar topic only for you Order Now There is also a fence on the eastern border and a large pandanus tree just south of the site. The proposed site is located at main beach and runs parallel to the Southport surf lifesaving club. Site dimensions equate to approximately 30 meters squared (5m by 6m). There are two walking paths positioned parallel to the northern and western borders. There is also a fence on the eastern border and a large pandanus tree just south of the site. Design statement My design revolves around an â€Å"all seeing† mentality that is often associated with the SLS culture. Surf lifesavers protect people from the oceans unpredictable qualities and create a sense of security for beach goers. Watchful eyes ensure that nobody enjoying the wonders of a beach has to deal with dangerous or life threatening situations. As I progressed through my design I intended to keep this in mind at all times. The whole structure, excluding the metal support poles, will be constructed out of thick coloured sheets of soda lime glass. This particular type of glass was chosen due to the malleable and durable qualities that it offers. The centre piece will be a hollow and transparent piece of ocean blue glass. The top surface will be glass blown in accordance to the disks at either end of the design and will resemble the motion of rolling swells. All four glass disks will be identical in form but vary between yellow and red in colouration. The colouring of this design was chosen to commemorate surf lifesavers in a literal sense. Red and yellow to match the organizations primary colours and blue like the ocean. However, the symbolic meaning behind this design is far more potent and should evoke a strong feeling of security in those who view and consider the actual meaning of my memorial. The disk at the back will be used to look through and the three disks at the front will create a panoramic outlook onto Southports beachfront. This will metaphorically let people see â€Å"through a surf lifesavers eyes† and should remind observers that they are safe at the hands of lifesavers. Keeping an eye on the beach is a fundamental aspect of SLS and my design symbolically mirrors this important temperament. Plasticine models Figure 1. 1 Figure 1. 2 Figure 1. 3 Figure 1. 4 Design process The plasticene models shown on the previous page are an ordered process of my design. Figure 1. 1 was my initial concept and as you can see it incorperated the idea of an â€Å"all seeing metality† (two cylindrical shapes stemming off of an all seeing eye. ) This concept was discarded due to apprehensions regarding the eye. Although the eye and two viewing cylinders do commemorate surf lifesavers, I came to the conclusion that the design did not symbolically embody surf lifesavers. In Figure 1. 2 I was leaning more towards the idea of the ocean as well as an â€Å"all seeing mentality†. The wave was again a representation of SLS that is too literal. Figure 1. 3 was where my final design started to come together, the concept of an enclosed glass structure started to take form and the intention behind this design was ultimately to give people a view through â€Å"a surf life savers eyes†. By the time I had made my fourth and final model (Figure 1. 4) It can be seen that the shape and form were very similar to my final concept sketches and computer generated proposals. Technical drawings with dimenentions Figure 2. 1 Figure 2. 1 Figure 2. 1 Figure 3. 2 Figure 3. 2 Figure 3. 1 Figure 3. 1 In figure 2. 1 there is a picture of a human placed next to the front and side projections. This gives us an idea of scale in regards to design size. The proposal is 2000 mm In height and 5000mm in length. From the human scale we can see that the viewing disk at the back of the design will be at eye level for most average heighted people. This is a key design feature considering the whole purpose of the proposal is to let people view the beach through the glass design. Figure 3. 2 is a rendered image taken from the back end of my design, it’s an interesting image in the sense that it actually gives us an idea of what it would look like to look through my proposal, the only difference being that one would see Southports beachfront as a background rather than an autodesk inventor background. Figure 3. 2 is a rendered image taken from the back end of my design, it’s an interesting image in the sense that it actually gives us an idea of what it would look like to look through my proposal, the only difference being that one would see Southports beachfront as a background rather than an autodesk inventor background. Figure 3. 1 is a rendered image of the front end of my design in a perspective view. Figure 3. 1 is a rendered image of the front end of my design in a perspective view. Figure 3. Figur Development sketches (journal work) Additional rendered images How to cite Surf Lifesaving Memorial, Essay examples

Friday, April 24, 2020

Political Science Essay free essay sample

Mercado, Emily Political Science Professor Stripe May 2, 2014 Three Words that Moved a Nation This paper will analyze the political ad titled Yes We Can. The ad aired during the 2008 presidential campaign, Barack Obama vs.. John McCain. This paper will first describe the political context of the ad, second describe the ad itself, and finally make an argument about why the ad was effective. This ad was effective and has become famous because of the use and continuous repetition of these three simple words that can inspire a generation, unite a immunity, and move a nation: yes we can. Throughout time this slogan has served as a symbol Of hope to the people, and empowerment. It conjures up images of a multitude of human rights movements, and has transcended cultural differences. The use of yes we can in the ad inspires people to make a difference like those who have come before them, and they can do so by voting for Obama whom is a symbol of change. We will write a custom essay sample on Political Science Essay or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The political context of the ad was influenced by many different elements during its making. When the ad aired in 2008 during Beams campaign against Republican John McCain it was an immediate success.It supported Barack Obama, one of the leading Democratic candidates for the 2008 IIS Presidency, who promises a new beginning to the American people. His platform rests upon tremendous change in the United States and upon the establishment of a new path for the American government, such as ending the war in Iraq, enacting a universal health care bill, and being pro-choice. As the next American president, he promises hope for a better future. Most of Beams campaign ads, such as Yes We Can put emphasis on just that. They displayed him as a trustworthy leader who the people of United States could rely on.Though there were also a number of attack ads whose main goal was to link McCain with former Republican president George Bush, who has low approval ratings. The attack ads were very successful in hurting Moccasins campaign that was trying to display him as a nonconformist. Moccasins platform was much less liberal than Beams. His platform consisted of things such as not withdrawing from the war in Iraq until they are capable of self- governing themselves, pro-life, and stronger border control. His ads, unlike Beams, were mainly attack ads on Obama.They suggested Obama was more of a celebrity figure than a leader, in favor of higher taxes, and that we didnt know enough about him to trust him as our president. 80th of the candidates had different opinions on the major political issues and concerns of the 2008 campaign, which were the economy, the energy crisis, health care, education, and the war in Iraq and terrorism. The artist Will. i. Am created the song, as well as the black and white music video entitled, Yes We Can. The lyrics come directly from the famous incision speech given by Obama after losing the New Hampshire primary to Hilary Clinton. Celebrities, comedians, musicians, actors and actresses, and even models are featured in the song and video and sing along with Obama as he speaks. This technique creates a parallel of two or more voices reciting the same words at certain points in the song. These voices come in as split screens with vertical breaks between each person in the video and they come in and go out frequently. Sometimes up to three people are featured and sometimes only just one. Obama is sometimes not featured visually, but his voice and words always are throughout the piece.The last voice is that of sound recordings of the crowd during the actual speech, their lyrics being yes we can, and we want change. This shows the diversity and range of talented people featured in the video. This large group is never shown together all at once, but instead individually within a frame. The only instruments used in this song are guitar, voice, and piano. The video ends with the words hope, which appears in white bold letters, and then the red teeters V and T replace the H and P in hope to spell out the word VOTE. Then the whole word vote changes font to the color red, and the video ends. The ads overall message is that we as a people have fought for change in the past, and no matter where we came from or what we look like we are all equals in the government. As long as we believe that we can then we will, but it is up to us to make the first steps towards change. Obama symbolizes hope for a better future; therefore it is up to us a people to take a stand and vote for change, vote for Obama for president.

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Philosophy Jokes to Understand the Self and Cognition

Philosophy Jokes to Understand the Self and Cognition Philosophy of mind is a rich field for jokes since quite a lot of humor is about the strangeness of being human and the difference between knowing something from the outside and knowing it from the inside (i.e. from a subjective perspective). Here are a few choice items. The Silent Parrot A man sees a parrot in a pet shop and asks how much it costs. â€Å"Well, he’s a good talker, says the owner, â€Å"so I can’t let him go for less than $100.†            Ã‚   â€Å"Hmm,† says the man, â€Å"that ‘s a bit steep. How about that miniature turkey over there? â€Å"Oh, I’m afraid he’d stretch your budget even more†, answers the owner. â€Å"That turkey sells for $500.† â€Å"What!† exclaims the customer. â€Å"How come the turkey’s five times the price of the parrot when the parrot can talk and the turkey can’t? â€Å"Ah, well, â€Å"says the store owner. â€Å"It’s true the parrot can talk and the turkey can’t. But that turkey is a remarkable phenomenon. He’s a philosopher.   He may not talk, but he thinks! The joke here, of course, is that the claim about the turkey’s ability to think is unverifiable since it doesn’t manifest itself in any way that is publicly observable. Empiricism in all its forms tends to be skeptical of any such claims. In the philosophy of mind, one robust form of empiricism is behaviorism. Behaviorists hold that all talk of â€Å"private†, â€Å"inner† mental events, should be translatable into statements about observable behavior (which includes linguistic behavior). If this can’t be done, then the claims about inner mental states are unverifiable and hence meaningless, or at least unscientific. Behaviourism Q: How does a behaviorist greet another behaviorist? A: Youre feeling fine. How am I? The point here is that behaviorists reduce all mental concepts to descriptions of how people behave. They do this because of behavior, unlike a person’s inner thought and feelings, is publicly observable. Part of the motivation for doing this is to make psychology more scientific–or at least more the â€Å"hard† sciences such as physics and chemistry which consist entirely of descriptions of objective phenomena. The problem, though, at least as far as the critics of behaviorism are concerned, is that we all know perfectly well that we aren’t just a lump of nature exhibiting patterns of behavior. We have consciousness, subjectivity, what has been called an â€Å"inscape.† To deny this, or to deny that our private access to it can be a source of knowledge (e.g. about how we are feeling) is absurd. And it leads to the sort of absurdity captured in the above exchange. Knowledge of Other Minds A four-year-old girl comes running to her father bawling loudly and holding her head. â€Å"What’s wrong, honey?† asks the concerned parent. Between sobs, the girl explains that she’d been playing with her nine-month-old baby brother when the baby had suddenly grabbed her hair and pulled hard. â€Å"Oh well†, says her father, these things are bound to happen sometimes. You see, the baby doesn’t know that when he pulls your hair he’s hurting you. Comforted, the girl goes back to the nursery. But a minute later there’s another outburst of sobbing and screaming. The father goes to see what the problem is now and finds that this time it’s the baby who’s in tears. â€Å"What’s the matter with him?† he asks his daughter. â€Å"Oh, nothing much, she says. â€Å"Only now he knows.† A classic problem of modern philosophy is whether I can justify my belief that other people have subjective experiences similar to mine. The joke illustrates the significant fact that this is a belief we acquire very early in life. The girl has no doubt that the baby feels pain similar to her own. It may also tell us something about how we arrive at this belief. Interestingly, what the girl says at the end is quite possibly false. The baby may only know that his sister did something to his head which hurt. That might be enough to stop him pulling her hair in future. But it won’t be too long before he goes beyond mere pragmatic avoidance of hair pulling and accepts the standard explanation of why he should he eschew it. The Unconscious A hunter is stalking through the forest when he is suddenly charged by a bear. HE shoots but misses.   In seconds, the bear is upon him. It grabs his gun and breaks it in two. It then proceeds to sodomize the hunter. The hunter is, of course, furious. Two days later he returns to the forest with a brand new high-powered rifle. All day he hunts for the bear, and towards dusk comes across it. As he aims the bear charges.   Again the shot goes wide. Again the bear grabs the gun, smashes it to bits and then sodomizes the hunter. Beside himself with rage, the hunter returns the next day with an AK 47. After another long search he finds the bear, but this time the carriage jams as he tries to shoot the charging animal. Once again the bear breaks apart the weapon and throws it away. But this time, instead of taking the usual liberties, he puts his paws on the man’s shoulders and says, gently: â€Å"Let’s be honest with each other. This isn’t really about hunting, is it?† This is a pretty funny joke. One thing interesting about it, though, is that it relies on the listener understanding that the bear’s words refer to unconscious motivations and desires. Since Freud, the existence of these is widely accepted. But at the time of Descartes, the notion that you could have thoughts, beliefs, wishes, and motives that you were not aware of would have been considered absurd by many people. The mind was thought to be transparent; anything â€Å"in† it could be readily identified and examined through introspection. So back in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, this joke would probably have fallen flat. Descartess Death The great French philosopher Rene Descartes is most famous for his statement, â€Å"I think, therefore I am.† He made this certainty the starting point of his entire philosophy. What is less known is that he died in rather unusual circumstances. He was sitting in a cafà © one day when a waiter approached him, coffee pot in hand. â€Å"Would you like more coffee, monsieur?† asked the waiter. â€Å"I think not,† Descartes replied-and poof! . . . he disappeared.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

The 10 Worst Natural Disasters in World History

The 10 Worst Natural Disasters in World History All of the worst disasters in recorded history have been natural disasters - earthquakes, tsunamis, cyclones, and floods. Natural Hazard vs. Natural Disaster A natural hazard is a naturally-occurring event that poses a threat to human life or property. A natural hazard becomes a natural disaster when it actually takes place, causing significant loss of life and property. The potential impact of a natural disaster depends on the size and location of the event. If the disaster takes place in a heavily populated area, it immediately causes more damage to both life and property. There have been numerous natural disasters in recent history, ranging from the very recent January 2010 earthquake that struck Haiti, final death toll still unknown, to Cyclone Aila, which hit Bangladesh and India in May of 2009, killing approximately 330 people and affecting upwards of 1 million. Top Ten Worst Disasters in the World There is debate as to what the deadliest disasters of all time actually are, due to discrepancies in death tolls, especially with disasters that occurred outside of the last century. Following is a list of ten of the deadliest disasters in recorded history, from lowest to highest estimated death toll. 10. Aleppo Earthquake (Syria 1138) - 230,000 dead 9. Indian Ocean Earthquake/Tsunami (Indian Ocean 2004) - 230,000 dead 8. Haiyun Earthquake (China 1920) - 240,000 dead 7. Tangshan Earthquake (China 1976) - 242,000 dead 6. Antioch Earthquake (Syria and Turkey 526) - 250,000 dead 5. India Cyclone (India 1839) - 300,000 dead 4. Shaanxi Earthquake (China 1556) - 830,000 dead 3. Bhola Cyclone (Bangladesh 1970) - 500,000-1,000,000 dead 2. Yellow River Flood (China 1887) - 900,000-2,000,000 dead 1. Yellow River Flood (China 1931) - 1,000,000-4,000,000 dead Current State of World Disasters Every day, geologic processes are taking place that can disrupt the current equilibrium and produce natural disasters. These events are generally only catastrophic, however, if they take place in an area where they affect human populations. Advances have been made in predicting such events; however, there are very few instances of well-documented prediction. There is often a relationship between past events and future events and some areas are more prone to natural disasters (​floodplains, on fault lines, or in areas previously destroyed), but the fact remains that we cannot predict or control natural events, therefore, we remain vulnerable to the threat of natural hazards and the impacts of natural disasters.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Using Manipulatives in Teaching Math for High School Students with Research Paper

Using Manipulatives in Teaching Math for High School Students with Learning Disabilities - Research Paper Example Manupilatives are used to bridge the gap between informal Math and formal Math. To achieve these objectives manupilatives used in classroom instruction must fit the development level of the students (Case et al, 2009). Young students have counters while older students use coloured wooden rods that represent difficult numbers. Maccini, & Hughes (2006) stated that according to the Principles and Standards for School Mathematics. Manupilatives existed since time in memorial, and it is crucial for teaching students at all levels in order for them to aqcuire knowledge in Mathematics. High school students with learning disabilities require the use of manupilsatives to ease understanding Mathematics. Moyer-Packenham, Salkind, & Bolyard, (2008)) suggested that students with learning disabilities may develop more concept understanding of difficult concepts when using virtual manipulatives than those that do not have learning disabilities. This review attempts to review studies conducted on th e use of manupilatives in teaching math for high school students with leaning disabilities. The purpose of this paper is to examine the importance and benefits of math manipulatives among students with learning disabilities. 2.2 Literature review Several Mathematics topics can be taught using different manupilatives. These materials should foster students concepts of numerals, geometry, measurements, problems, solving and data analysis (Moyer et al, 2008). The teachers can use counters, blocks cubes and cuboids to teach ordinal numbers, place values, fractions and understanding algebra. Students with learning disabilities can use geoboards when learning geometric shapes, and geometrics solid models can be used when learning spatial reasoning. Rulers and measuring cups can be used to represent length and volume in measurement, and students can use spinners when learning probability. A case study conducted by Puchner, Taylor, O’Donnell, and Fick (2008) they analyzed the use of manupilatives in teaching Mathematics at the elementary level. He decided to use manupilatives rather than using learning outcomes of the learners. The study found that in some of the Mathematics lessons, studied the use of manupilatives is turned into an end in itself rather than an instructional tool. While others, the use of manupilatives failed to help students with learning disabilities. Puchner, et al (2008) in their study noted that this weakness occurred because the teachers concentrated in content teaching and the end product in itself. In other situation, the use of manupilatives was separated from the actual teaching, and in second grade, the students copied the teachers’ examples making it difficult to learn Mathematics content. This misuse of manupilatives provided the researcher with further areas of research. The researchers also found that teachers needed support in the selection of manupilative used in teaching Mathematics among students with learning disabil ities. A study conducted by Munger (2007) where, in the experimental group, the teachers used manupilative models to teach Mathematics and the control group the teacher mainly used drawings and charts while teaching Mathematics. He conducted an analysis of covaerience, and it revealed that the experimental group using the manupilatives when teaching scored significantly higher than the control group that used drawings and charts. More research studies reveal that students who use manupilatives